VPN Glossary – All VPN Terms Explained


To use a VPN in a better manner, you must know the meanings of all the terms related to it. Here we have compiled a VPN glossary which covers all the VPN terms, we have explained.

Access Control- It is a system which restricts the access to computer resources. An Access control list (ACL) makes sure the types of operation each user can perform on particular files and directories.

Ad blocker It is software usually a browser extension which blocks the ads on the websites you visit while surfing the internet. Some ad blockers entirely block the ads or some block them partially.

Adversary – Anyone either a person or a company who wants to intrude into your internet data without your permission and knowledge is an Adversary. In today’s internet world it can be a hacker, cyber attacker or any government surveillance and security agencies and the websites tracking you for ads are the Adversaries.

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) – It is the best and most secure encryption standard even used by the US security agencies to protect their confidential information. The most secure level is 256-bit AES encryption, which is considered hardest to break is offered by many VPN providers in the industry. Know in detail about VPN encryption.

Anonymous VPN- A VPN software which hides your original Internet identity, your IP, your real location and other details and makes you hidden over the network, so you become untraceable (for privacy) is called an anonymous VPN service. Learn more about the best Anonymous VPN.

Anti-Replay Service- This service is responsible for the tagging of each IP packet with a particular sequence number moving through the secure association. On the other point (receiver end), every IP packet’s sequence number is verified to see if it according to the specified range. If the sequence number of an IP packet seems away from the specified range, that packet is blocked.

Application Gateway Firewall- Application gateways monitor the data at the application layer of protocols and perform as proxies for outside users, detaining (checking) the packets and then forwarding them to the application. So, the outside users have no straight connection to anything beyond the firewall. The firewall monitors the data packets, and as it knows all the file transport protocols (FTP), hence it provides security for all the applications it supports.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)- This protocol is responsible for acquiring the physical addresses (such as Windows address) of the hardware divisions in a network mechanism. The host sends an ARP request to obtain the physical address; the request contains the IP address of the target hardware unit. If the request sent by the host finds the division with that IP address, then the hardware division responds with its physical IP address.

Asymmetrical Key Exchange- It is the part of encryption and cryptographic system. It is a mechanism based on a pair of encryption keys. One key in a pair encrypts the data, and the other one decrypts it at the end of a tunnel. One of the key pairs is secret and known only to the owner, but the other pair of the key is the public key and published openly. Even though it is public, it still belongs to the owner.

Authentication- It is the process of identity verification of a user trying to access a network. It is done through time-based code sequences, response and other sophisticated techniques.

Authentication Header (AH)-  It is a process of providing secure authentication and integrity for IP datagrams.

Authorization- It is the mechanism of finalizing the types of operations and access are allowed on a network. It is used along with the authentication process where once a user is authenticated; they have access to the authorized services and operations determined by this process.

Backdoor – It is a loophole in the cryptographic system of encryption, built deliberately by the companies (after the orders by the state security agencies) to provide security and surveillance agencies the access to encryption mechanism so that they can fight the cyber criminals and terrorist better. People around the world think it as a threat because if government security agencies can use it, cyber criminals and terrorists can also use it to threat people around the world.

Bandwidth Throttling- In the Information Technology (IT) field, Bandwidth means the data transfer rate. Which means the amount of data that can be transferred from one point to another in a given period (generally seconds). Bandwidth throttling is usually the deliberate kill in the data transfer rate of your internet connection done by your internet service provider (ISP) for any particular reason.

Bitcoin – It is a form of currency which keeps your details anonymous while making any transaction via Bitcoin. It has no central controlling body (like the bank or money exchange), and it functions through the peer-to-peer technology. Just like the real money you can use Bitcoins to purchase things (like VPN) and other good and it can also be exchanged for any currencies. Read our dedicated article of Bitcoin to learn more about how it works and what are the best bitcoin VPN.

BitTorrent – It is a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol which provides a unique file sharing mechanism without any central body and long upload or download time. It requires a BitTorrent client on your machine to download or upload files from thousands of torrent and P2P file sharing websites worldwide. It is the most powerful and popular file sharing mechanism so far, learn more about it in our comprehensive Torrent guide.

Browser fingerprinting – It is a technology which by using different other technologies create a unique fingerprint of a particular browser. This fingerprint then is used to identify the browser throughout the internet for tracking and showing ads based on the user’s data stored in the browser history, cookies, etc. It is very hard or almost impossible to get rid of it completely, because if a browser installs any add-on to block it, the fingerprint becomes more clear and unique.

Buffer Overflow Attack- It is a type of attack which manipulates a known bug in one application running on a server. It then forces the application to create system stack and eventually gain the administrative rights to the attacker.

Certificate Authority (CA)- It is the authority in any network which is responsible for issuing and managing the public keys and security credentials which are used for data and message encryption and decryption. When a request is initiated for the certificate by the requestor, CA first verifies the information by Registration Authority (RA). When RA verifies the information, CA then gives a certificate.

Challenge-Response- It is a general authentication method where an individual is asked (challenge) some private information (the response). Almost all the security systems that work on smart cards works on challenge-response mechanism. The code is given to the user (challenge) which is entered by the user into the smart card. The smart card shows a new code (response) that user needs to enter so that he or she can log in.

CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol)- It is an authentication method where once the link is created, a challenge is sent by the server to the requestor. Then the requestor sends the value he or she got by using a one-way hash function. The server then verifies the value sent by the requestor with its calculation of the hash value. If the value is matched, the authentication is a success. Otherwise, the connection is terminated.

Checksum or hash- It is a total count of the number of bits that are transmitted on a network included with the unit. Then receiver at the other end of communication checks the checksum, which either the same number of bits are received or not. If the count is same at the both ends, it is confirmed the transmission was received completely.

Cipher – It is an algorithm which is used in the data encryption process. Advanced cipher is complicated and hard to break, even by using a supercomputer (however not impossible, but practically not possible). All the VPN connections are encrypted by PPTP, L2TP/IPSec or OpenVPN, and among all of these OpenVPN is the most secure and best so far.

Client- A client is a requesting body (a user or program) in a client/server relationship. For instance, when a user makes request for various pages from all over the web using a web browser. Then the browser is a client in this relationship, which is sending and receiving the HTML file from a web server (a computer).

Connection logs– It is a record of metadata of a ‘’No-log’’ VPN user extracted by the connection behavior. It includes details such as when you connected, duration of a connection, what you are connected to, etc. The VPN providers claim it as necessary for technical assistance while establishing a connection and it is a harmless thing (mostly). In some very rare cases, even this log can be exploited to initiate an ‘end to end timing attack’ by the cyber criminals, but this is extremely rare in the case of VPNs.

Content filtering, scanning or screening- It is the procedure of reviewing the actual information which the end user see while using any particular application. For instance, an email content.

Cookie- A cookie is a message that is sent by a Web server to the web browser when a browser access any page from a server for the first time. The web browser saves this message as a text file named ‘’cookie .txt.’’. Now this message is then sent to the server again whenever the web browser requests the same page from the web server. It is done to minimize the connection time so that a page can be loaded as quickly as possible.

Cryptography- It is a branch of complicated mathematics and engineering combined, it is created to provide protection to the information from unauthorized access. Regarding computer networking, cryptography includes; Encryption, Authentication, and Authorization.

Daemon- It is a program responsible for managing periodic service requests. It runs continuously and waits for service request by the clients and then forwards these requests to other programs or processes. Every single server of web pages has a  ‘Hypertext Transfer Protocol daemon or HTTP’ that waits continually for the requests of service from the users and their web clients.

Data authentication – It is the process of verification of encrypted data and connection (such as VPN). For this purpose, the procedure uses a standard cryptographic hash function is used. OpenVPN uses SHA-1 by default. However, even more, safer has functions are now used by many VPN providers for unbreakable encryption for example SHA256, SHA3, or SHA512, etc.

DD-WRT – It is an open source OS for routers that is called firmware.  It can be used for many purposes like you can set up DD-WRT and can configure your router so all the devices you own can be connected through a VPN, enhance your Wi-Fi signal range, can be configured as a printer, repeater, NAS hub. It can be flashed to your current router or simple you can buy a pre-flashed DD-WRT router.

DES (Data Encryption Standard)- It is a broadly used data encryption method in which a private key is assigned randomly to the message for encryption and decryption, the same key must be known and used by the sender and receiver for a successful encryption and decryption process. It is hardest to break as declared by the US government and kept to itself. There can be 72,000,000,000,000,000 (72 quadrillion) or more possible encryption keys that can be used.

Denial of service attack- This attack is usually done to restrict the bandwidth and can result in slow or no connection at all. In this type of attacks, any user of program eats up all the resources by triggering bulk requests simultaneously leaving no resources for other users. Hence, there is ‘’denying’’ service for other users on the network.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)- DHCP is responsible for extracting the configuration of the individual computers on an IP network from a server or servers which have no accurate information about individual computers, so they request it by this protocol. The main objective of this is to minimize the mandatory work to manage a massive IP network. The main information that is obtained and shared through this is the IP addresses of the computers.

Diffie-Hellman- The Diffie-Hellman is a method for the key agreement which allows two hosts to create and share a secret key. VPN services that operate on IPSec standard use the Diffie-Hellman method for key management.

Digital Certificate- It is an electronic ‘’credit card’’ that creates you data when to do any transaction or business over the Internet. It is issued by Certification Authority (CA). Which has your name, expiration dates of a certificate, a serial number, a copy of certificate owner’s public key (for encryption and decryption of messages and digital signatures), and the digital signature of CA, so the person can verify the certificate is genuine.

DMCA Notice – Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), is a legal act which has legal powers only in the United States. It is used as a general the term ‘DMCA notice’ is used worldwide and it is related to any copyright infringement notice which is sent by the legal authorities to the ISPs and content providers across the globe. When such notices are received by any ISP or any content media provider, they are legally bound to act according to that and remove such content which is flagged as a copyright infringement.

DNS (Domain Name System) – it is a mechanism comprised of a database which translates the simple websites addresses( URLs) to their computerized form, which is a numerical IP address understandable by the computers. DNS translation is done by the ISPs all around the world, but for the users’ privacy concern the every DNS connection request is translated by the VPN servers when you are connected to one. While the URL translation process the IP address of the user can be detected by a server, the VPN providers manage it themselves, so that their users’ privacy remain intact.

DNS leak – Even if you are connected to a VPN and your DND requests are not managed by the VPN server, but your ISP then you are suffering a DNS leak. To avoid such incident, you must select a VPN provider who provides ‘’DNS Leak protection’’. See A Comprehensive Guide to IP, DNS and WebRTC Leaks for a full discussion.

DNS spoofing- This is the mechanism of breaching the trust relationship and assuming the DNS name of another system. This is done by comprising a domain name server for a valid domain or by corrupting the cache of the name service of a particular victim system.

Domain- The particular name which is used for the identification of an Internet network.

Domain name server– A server which stores information regarding specific Internet hosts, which utilizes the domain name system to map an IP address to the internet host

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)- DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology by which high-bandwidth information goes to homes and small businesses through plain copper telephone lines. The xDSL shows further variations of DSL like ADSL, HDSL, and RADSL. A DSL line carries the data as well as the voice signal, the data line of which is always connected.

Edward Snowden – He is an ex- NSA employee who revealed the shocking information by showing the data he has as an NSA employee, which indicated the extent of US government agencies surveillance mechanism and how they invade the internet users privacy throughout the Us. The revelations made by Edward Snowden is an open secret now, and he is the first to let the world know how cruel and insane US surveillance programs are. Which created a broad awareness of the internet privacy and security across the globe. Snowden himself elaborated the importance of internet privacy and asked users to implement and adopt ways to enhance their privacy and security by using additional internet privacy and security software like a VPN.

Encryption – It is a process of converting a simple text data  (readable) into a code form by using a mathematical algorithm (known as a cipher) so that it can not be read or tracked by any unauthorized person even if it is intercepted. This encryption is protected with the encryption keys and all strong encryptions (AES 256-bit along with OpenVPN), the encryption key is hard to crack.

Encryption key length – It is the factor which determines how long a cipher will take to be broken. Ciphers which are used by the VPN providers varies between 128-bits to 256-bit of key length, which is considered safe for now as same key length is used by the US government to protect their sensitive data.

End to end timing attack – A trick which is used to de-anonymise VPN and Tor users by matching their timings with the timing of otherwise anonymous behavior over the internet. The people who use a VPN provider who keeps the connection log (metadata) are vulnerable to such attacks, but using shared IP addresses can provide shelter to the users against this attack.

End-to-end (e2e) encryption – The type of encryption in which the data encryption is done by you, on your device and you are the owner of the encryption key (unless you share them). Products and services which use end-to-end encryption are considered more secure. Read about it in detail in our privacy guide.

ESP (Encapsulated Security Payload)- It is the mechanism which provides security to the IP datagrams or packets, the IP datagram are the message unit which internet protocol handles during the Internet data transport process. The encryption of IP datagrams provides protection to the data packets.

Five Eyes (FYFY)- A mass surveillance and data retention agreement among five nations which includes, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, , the United Kingdom, and the United States, which spy on each other’s country and share the data freely. This alliance was made to get rid of the legal restrictions which don’t allow the countries to spy on their citizens.

Gag order – A legal notice which stops any individual or company to inform other users about anything. For instance, a gag order can be issued to prevent a VPN provider from alerting its customers with the information of any flaw in the service or that the service has been compromised in any way.

Gateway- It is an entry point of a network and as the door to other networks. It can be any machine or service which forwards the data packets from one network to another network in their transportation journey across the internet.

Geo-restrictions – When the government blocks the access to certain online services due to regional restrictions. For instances some websites are only accessible from US, UK, etc. and not from the other regions like Hulu in US and Japan, BBC iPlayer is only for UK residents. It happens due to complexities in content licensing and copyright agreement in different countries.

Geo-spoofing – When a user bypasses the geo-restrictions by using online bypassing tools like a VPN, SmartDNS or Proxy, which changes the original geographical location of the user and provides a new virtual location selected by the user. This whole process is called Geo-spoofing, and it is done by masking the real IP address of the user with a fake IP address of the selected server location of a VPN, Proxy or SmartDNS.

Hacker- It is a name given to a person who uses his/her computer programming skills for evil purposes and breaks into any other computer system without permission for any possible purpose (Data theft, information collection, etc.).

Handshake – It is the conciliation procedure used by SSL/TLS to authenticate and exchange certificates, and to create an encrypted connection. To make sure this process has no flaws and it cannot be tampered with, OpenVPN can use either Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC) or RSA encryption.

HTTPS (HTTP over SSL, or HTTP Secure) –  HTTPS is a protocol which uses SSL/TLS encryption to provide security and protection to the websites. It is used by companies and online services which involve the financial transaction or confidential information like banks, online retailers, and all the websites which are concern about their user’s data and communication and want it to be secure. It is the primary security protocol of the entire internet world, when you use HTTPS to access any websites, any intruder can see you visit the website, but unable to see what you do on the website ( your credentials are secure with HTTPS). If websites you try to access, starts with HTTP:// with no padlock icon instead of https:// and a padlock icon, then stop the access immediately, because it can be risky for your privacy and internet security.

Internet Key Exchange (IKE)- It is a hybrid protocol whose main objective is to negotiate and deliver authenticated keying stuff for the security bodies in a secure and protected way. It is used mostly by VPNs to negotiate the encryption keys and to provide a remote user from a remote site (whose IP needs not to be revealed) the access to the secure network.

IP address (Internet Protocol address) – Each internet device has a peculiar address attached to it. This address is in a numerical form assigned to the devices for identification purpose over the entire network of the internet. This is called the IP address of a particular computer or device. It can only be changed virtually by VPNs and other IP spoofing services, to get the access to regionally blocked websites.

IP leak – If you use any IP spoofing tool like VPN, Proxy, etc. and even then your ISP, any website or any other web service can detect your real IP address, it mean you are suffering IP leak. You can check IP leak at www.ipleak.net . There are many factors of IP leak which we have discussed in detail (see the DNS leak section for the link to guide to IP leak).

IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) – It is the current default mechanism to provide numerical IP address values to the systems across the internet. It only supports a maximum 32-bit Internet address.

IPv6 ((Internet Protocol version 6) – The limitation of IPv4 (due to the immense rise in internet use) the new solution is the new standard to provide IP addresses to the machines and that is IPv6. It uses 128-bit web addresses, which means 2^128 (340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000!).

ISP (Internet Service Provider) – The company or group of people who provide you the internet connection at home or office is called Internet Service Provider (ISP). If your connection is not encrypted then, your ISP can monitor all you do over the internet. Yes, all your visited websites, your download history, search history, chats, etc., hence all the internet activities are viewed by your ISP, and the only way you can stop this is by using a VPN ( a privacy and encryption tool to keep the snoopers away).

Kill switch – It is a security feature built into VPN Apps provided by many VPN companies. The purpose of this feature is to avoid any IP leaks while connecting to the internet anonymously. If due to any reason the VPN connection drops this feature immediately stops the internet connection as well, so that the user is safe and secure. The connection is reconnected when the VPN is running again. This is done automatically in most of the reliable VPN software.

L2TP/IPsec – It is  Protocol used by VPNs as a VPN tunneling protocol and encryption suite. It is built into all the internet friendly platforms and devices and has no major flaw in security terms. When implemented properly it can still be secure.

Logs – Logs are the record of user’s data that is kept by any internet service or your ISP. It can include all kind of information and metadata of your internet activities and even some personal identifiable information (PII). It is important to select a service like a VPN which keeps no log, even though when they ‘’No log’’, they only mean no PII, but some data is still logged. That data includes your connection information with the software, and that is not at all harmful for your privacy and in fact necessary to keep run the particular service.

Metadata – Metadata is the data related to your actual data, for example, your chats and conversations, your phone number, your email ID, etc. this is your real data, and metadata carries the information of such data. Which includes at which time you chat? To whom? How frequently? Which website do you visit? At which time? How often do you visit? This is a robust set of information carried by metadata and can tell a lot about any individual internet activities. Read about it in detail in our privacy guide’s metadata section.

Monitoring- A process of keeping an eye on any individual user activities on a network. It provides the administrator the ability to view the stuff a user used while active on the network.

NAT (Network Address Translation)- It allows the intranet of yours to utilize the addresses that are not same as the external internet thinks you are using. It allows a lot of users to share a single IP address simultaneously. NAT is the one which provides you the security feature of ‘’address hiding’’ which is so far the best solution for security over the internet.

OpenVPN – It is most used VPN protocol which is used by most of the commercial VPN providers. It is an open source software and when supported and implemented with strong encryption (like AES), it is the most reliable security even against NSA and almost impossible to break.

Packet- It is a unit of data which is traveling on a network from point A to B throughout the internet. It is handled by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP over the internet. These protocols help the data packets move safely, swiftly to the destination from the server.

Packet Filters- These filters manage which data to transfer and which not to transfer over a network. The packet filters are used to block connection and data from specific sources by determining their website address and service type in the network settings on any computer.

Packet Sniffing- The process of Intercepting the data (for, e.g., credit card details) of packets of information (including such information for example as a credit card number ) which are traveling on the network.

PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) – It is one of the oldest VPN protocols still used as a standard and basic protocol in all the VPN supported devices globally. It is easy to set up, and no additional software installation is required, so it is popular among businesses and VPN providers. However, it is now considered very insecure as NSA broke it many times to obtain the data, which was encrypted by PPTP considering it a secure protocol.   

Platform Attack- It is a type of attack which targets on the vulnerabilities of an operating system hosting the firewall.

Private Key- In the cryptographic system a secret or private key is a key used for encryption/decryption, which is known only to the parties or party who shares the encrypted message. A flaw of the private key is that, if the key is lost, stolen by the owner the system is broken, so the best alternative is a combination of a public and private key for encryption and decryption of messages.

Protocol- A protocol is a special set of rules which is used for the communication between the two points in a telecommunication network. The protocols carry the rules which are used to manage the signals that are coming and going throughout the network.

Protocol Attacks- This type of attack is aimed at the characteristics of the network services, which are exploited by the attacker. It is usually done to reduce the traffic rates of the websites, gain the service information, to affect the service performance and cause a denial of service due to the creation of infinite protocol loops, etc.

Proxies – A proxy server is a computer which acts as a middle body between your computer and the internet server. When you are connected to any proxy server and request to access any websites, the traffic flows due to this request will be shown as coming from the proxy server and not your computer. Which means your IP address, location, and other details will remain hidden and the internet server will see the IP address and location of the proxy you choose to connect to. Most of the proxy servers allow many users to use the server simultaneously and there is no encryption provided by the proxy services. That is why these are cheap and usually free to use, but extremely unsafe for the internet privacy.

Public Key- In a cryptographic system a public key is a value provided by some designated authority for secure and efficient encryption and decryption of the data. It is used with the combination of a private key, and this is called asymmetric encryption.

RSA encryption –  It is used to securely negotiate a VPN connection, SSL, OpenVPN and SSTP usually use the RSA asymmetric public-key cryptosystem. RSA works as a digital signature and encryption algorithm used to identify SSL/TLS certificates and has been the basis for security on the internet for the last two decades or so.

Secure Hash Algorithm-1 (SHA-1)- It is a one-way cryptographic function which manages the computation of the data messages during an encryption mechanism. It is used to create the ‘’fingerprint’’ of an actual message delivered from one point to a system and then verified by the signature on the other end of communication procedure. This process is used to shrink the huge data strings to a 20-byte length, used in a cryptographic process.

Shared IP addresses (shared IPs) – It is a common practice used, especially by VPN providers nowadays to enhance the individual user’s privacy over the internet. According to this strategy, a same IP address is assigned to many users by a VPN provider, so that identification of any particular individual is almost impossible, which makes the user anonymous over the internet.

Simultaneous connections – This feature is provided by the VPN companies in their VPN Apps. By using this features, you can run the VPN App on more than one device (maximum six simultaneous connection are provided by VPNs currently) using and paying for just one VPN account of any selected VPN provider.

SSL/TLS (Secure Socket Layer and Transport Layer Security) – It is one of the cryptographic protocol used to provide security to HTTPS websites. It’s open source implementation; OpenSSL is mainly used by OpenVPN. It is secure enough in a normal situation, but of course, no protocol is 100% safe and secure yet. Not many incidents of security flaws in SSL/TLS has been reported so far, but people have now concerns over the certificate system which authenticate the connections.

SSL/TLS Certificates – These certificates are used for verification of the websites that you try to access. When you request a website, SSL/TLS verifies that either the website is same that you think you are connecting to by authenticating the certificate presented by the browser after your request. If the certificate is verified by SSL/TLS, the websites are considered genuine and allowed your access by establishing a secure connection with a padlock icon at the beginning of the URL of the website ( you can see it in the address bar of the web page). These certificates are issued by Certificate Authority (CA).

TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Security)- It is a wireless security protocol which combines the network-based certificates with other authentication such as tokens or passwords.

Tunnel- It is a separate path established by one network to transfer the user data through it to the internet server via another network connection.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) – It is the alphanumeric address of websites that is used by people to access a particular website, for example; (sandyrobert.wpengine.com). These URLs are used only by humans as computers are unable to understand and process these, so it is translated (by DNS translation service) to the computer-friendly numeric IP addresses which are understandable by the computers.

VPN (Virtual Private Network) – A technology for privacy and security initiated mainly to provide remote workers to connect securely to the corporate computer networks. It is now very commonly used as many commercial VPN services are available in the market to be purchased and used by individuals as well. It is an internet privacy tool which hides your login details; such as your original IP address, your geographical location, etc. from all the people who are available on the network and makes you hidden and anonymous over the internet (see best anonymous VPN). This not only provides you security from the cyber threats and attacker but also let you access the blocked and geo-restricted websites and content from anywhere in the world, by IP spoofing technology. VPN has a network of hundreds of servers in different and popular locations of the world (US, UK, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Europe, Middle East, Asia, etc.). You can select any country to get the IP address and its virtual location and access the websites of that country, is it is blocked in your region. VPN is used for three major purposes. For Privacy and security (it provides AES 256-bit encryption to all of your internet data) read more about best encrypted VPN.  To bypass the geo-restriction and censorship and access the blocked content ( by IP spoofing you get access to any country’s stuff) and to download and upload files safely on P2P and torrenting network ( it provides you anonymity while sharing files on torrenting and P2P networks) read about best VPN for torrenting and P2P file sharing. It is compatible with all the major operating systems and devices like Windows, Mac, Linux, Android, iOS, etc.

VPN client – The VPN software which is provided by the VPN company to connect you to its VPN services. It is designed to provide you many security features which are user-friendly and can be easily installed and used.  

VPN server – A VPN had an expanded network of server throughout the world in various locations, popular and demanded by the users. These servers can be physically owned by the VPN company itself or a VPN company rent out the VPN servers in various locations. The self-managed VPN servers by any provider are the best to select as it is more secure than the rented third-party servers. The popular server locations are US, UK, Canada, Australia, Europe and the Middle East (see VPN for countries).

VPN tunnel – The private and encrypted tunnel created by the VPN service between your device or computer and a VPN server. It transfers all your data packets with security to the requested websites and servers while using the internet with a VPN your internet activities remain safe with this encrypted tunnel, away from the eyes of intruders and attackers.

VPS (Virtual Private Server) – It is a private server which can be rented out by you to be used as you own remote server. It is provided for use by the physically located VPS companies in different location globally. These can be used as your remote servers, and any operating system (allowed by the provider) can be installed on such VPS.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)-  WAP is an open international standard for communications between a mobile handset and the Internet or other computer applications etc.

Web Attack- An external attack which targets the web server vulnerabilities to cause malfunctions in the service is called a Web attack.

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)- WPA is a defined standard for the security specification which uses the temporary key integrity protocol to provide enhanced over-the-air encryption for the entire wireless data and communication system.

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Sandy Roberts is technology admirer and a computer specialist who is always curious for new technological advancements in the IT industry. With her extensive experience and apprehension of IT industry and technology, she writes after concrete research and analysis with the intention to aid the reader the content full of factual information. Being so ambitious to facilitate the readers, she intermittently tries her hand on the tech-gadgets and services popping frequently in the industry to reduce any ambiguity in her mind related to the project on she works, that a huge sign of dedication to her work.


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